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Second, growth currencies — despite boasting strong fundamentals — will remain vulnerable to sudden declines. Commodity Currencies Remain in the Spotlight Feb. While the outlook for is slightly less rosy if only because of the law of averages , investors would still be wise to keep such currencies on their radar screen. Strong commodity prices represent one such rationale. Commodity currencies — and commodities in general — have always held allure as investment vehicles because of their tangibility and necessity.
Simply, modern economies depend on commodities for their functioning. Thus, countries rich in natural resources would seem to represent safe bets, since they can be assured of demand both during periods of expansion and during economic downturns. The strong performance of commodity currencies in underscores this point, since despite the fact that prices for many commodities are well below the record highs of , these currencies are very close to their highs.
More specifically, the Canadian Dollar often tracks the price of oil; this correlation will probably only strengthen when the oil sands of western Canada are developed. While rich in many natural resources, it is gold that both Australia and South Africa are famous for, and to which their currencies are often tethered.
Brazil and New Zealand deal in a more diverse array of commodities, and the Kiwi and Real often move in tandem with broad-based commodities indexes. There is also the Mexican Peso oil , the Russian Ruble natural gas , the Norwegian Krona oil , and Chilean Peso copper , but the correlations between these currencies and the respective commodities for which they are famous tend to be looser. For commodity pure-plays, your best bet, then, would be to invest in the commodities themselves.
Dollar Down, Gold Up Sep. After a brief decline following the credit crisis, Gold has resumed its upward path. The general factors behind the price of gold are too broad and numerous to be captured in this post. At the same time, conspiracy theorists, doomsday predictors, and even some mainstream economists have long argued in support of gold as a hedge against inflation otherwise understood as currency devaluation.
In fact, I am only posting about gold now is because that notion has become much more popular over the last few years, to the point where pundits have come to see the current appreciation almost solely in terms of the decline in the Dollar.
Non-speculative demand i. Speaking of which; while there is now some evidence of recovery, it is nowhere near robust enough to support a return to bubble prices. Yet the price of gold remains not only stable, but positively buoyant. Some people even hold the extreme view that the entire fiat monetary system will collapse, with the result being a barter system centered around gold. In this sense, rising gold prices are hardly remarkable.
In fact, based on both Treasury bonds and inflation securities, inflation is the last thing on the minds of investors. It has very little utility especially compared to other commodities , and its supply can be easily manipulated by producers and central banks. Duplicate Screen0 and name the duplicate Screen1. Align the screens so that one is on top of the other. Configure Screen1 to look similar to Figure L1. The first radio button should write a value of 5 and the second a value of 6 to the simulation variable.
Duplicate the screen again and call the duplicate Screen2. Align the screens again. Make the screen look similar to Figure L1. The First radio button should perform a close window command while the second radio button should write a value 4 to the variable. You can insert the screenshot by opening your ictonics US Facility display and finding the property to the bottle. Repeat step 11, and name the group Screen3.
Make Screen3 look similar to Figure L1. Again, the first radio button should close the window and the second one should write a value of 4 to the simulation variable. Repeat step 11, and name the group Screen4. Make Screen4 look similar to Figure L1. This will be the last screen in the sequence. Repeat step 11, and name the group Screen5 and make it look like Figure L1. The first two radio buttons should close the window and the last one should write a value of 4 to the simulated variable.
Repeat step 11, and name the group Screen6 and make it look like Figure L1. Now that we have all the screens that we need, select all of them from the explorer and click the State button in the Selectors section of the Dynamics tab of the ribbon.
In the DataSource field of the dynamic, select the local simulation variable that you have been using. Click in the States field and click the ellipse button to bring up the Edit Selector States. The members of the State selector should be the same order as you had them in the Explorer. Therefore, the last member is the first screen we created.
With that selected, you can preview the item to the bottom left hand corner , set the low value to Scroll through each of the screens and assign the proper value to show the screen for the data source. Save your display and go into runtime to test it. There are many dynamics available in GraphWorX64 the help you build the necessary animations. Each dynamic available contains many advanced properties, which you will only see when developing the display in the Advanced Application Mode.
Being familiar with the advanced dynamic properties can greatly enhance the control of your dynamic in runtime. There are also two advanced dynamics: the State and Range Selectors. Each of these dynamics allows you to group different objects and show it. The State Selector allows you to show the different objects or frames based on the value of a data source. The Range Selector on the other hand allows you plan the group of different objects in sequence within a configurable period.
Once you have configured your display with different dynamics, you can still control in runtime. Though the options are limited, but you can still easily perform zoom controls, change language, and do many other actions while in runtime. The Runtime Menu options are a great tool in getting your display to present in the format desired. Before continuing to the next chapter, make sure you can answer the questions below.
True or False: A dynamic in analog animation mode allows users to control how the object animates based on the value of the data source. Which of the following can you do in GraphWorX64 runtime mode? Change the language of the display b. See a diagnostic window showing all the errors and bad quality data in the current display c. Print the current display d. All of the above e. Only A and B f. Only B and C g. Only A and C h.
None of the above 3. Which property allows you to set the amount of time to run a dynamic in discrete animation mode for one cycle? Period b. Duration c. RunningPeriod d. CycleTime 4. A grouped object such as a traffic light b. A group of circles c. A group of rectangles d. Which of the following are Selector Dynamics? State Selector b. Random Selector c. Range Selector d. They greatly simplify the configuration and save engineering time by allowing a configuration of properties of inner objects without the need to drill-into the symbol.
You can simply configure exposed smart properties that are tied to objects within the Smart Symbol to make the whole thing work. You can add a smart symbol from the Symbol Library to your design surface. Changing the value of a property of a Smart Symbol called a smart property automatically changes the value s of the associated properties of the descendant objects.
A typical object suitable for the conversion into a Smart Symbol is the gauge shown in Figure 2. When such a symbol is added into a display, it is often necessary to change the data source, which drives the rotation animation bound to the needle as well as controlling the scale on the gauge with its low and high limits. The changes in a normal object group require you to drill-into the group using the Edit Group function or ungroup the symbol, and modify all the properties, one by one.
Here is a quick list of some of the features associated with Smart Symbols: Smart Symbols are groupings of graphical objects. They are created from object groups using a wizard, which simplifies the binding of smart properties to properties of the descendant objects. Similarly, to object groups, Smart Symbols can be stored in the Symbol Library and reused later by dragging to the design surface; or copied and pasted from another location.
Smart Symbols appear as a special kind of object in the object Explorer. They contain Smart Properties which are bound to properties of inner objects and which allow to configure the Smart Symbol. Smart Properties of Smart Symbols can be added, edited, and removed at anytime. Changing the smart properties DataSource field will allow you to use your own data source in animating these symbols.
These symbols can also serve as an example if you wish to create your own. In the example we will present in this chapter, we will use the Gauges circular gauges gauge09 symbol for the most part. Feel free to browse and scrutinize the other symbols as we go through the chapter Gauge09 Let us first understand the different parts of a Smart Symbol and what makes a symbol smart.
Figure 2. The symbol looks no different compared to any regular symbol at a glance. However, if you take a closer look at it, you will find some special properties about the symbol. Figure Gauge09 First, if you look in the Explorer, you will notice that a Smart Symbol uses a different icon from regular symbols or groups. Instead of having the two rectangle icon for a group of objects, it uses a similar icon, but with an extra hand in it.
Furthermore, the default name for the symbol is Smart Symbol to help indicate the type of object. Of course, you can change the name of the Smart Symbol to whatever else you desire, but the icon stays the same. Let us now consider the properties of a Smart Symbol.
A Smart Symbol has properties similar to a group with one extra section called Smart Properties as shown in Figure 2. We will discuss Smart Properties in detail in a later section. From the Explorer, you can still expand the Smart Symbol as if it s a regular group object and work with the individual child objects in the symbol. This indicates that DataSource of the process point is exposed as a smart property.
And indeed, if we look at the Smart Properties, we see such a data source. In an HMI visualization product such as GraphWorX64, one of the most common property types that need to be configure is the data source. From process points to dynamics, all actions that we simulate on a display require some sort of a data source to control the actions.
Because the data source is such a commonly used property, it is desirable to provide an automated mechanism for exposing all unique data sources used inside a group of objects as properties of a Smart Symbol. This automated smart binding can significantly reduce the amount of time needed to construct similar objects that use different data sources.
You can easily create a Smart Symbol with a few clicks and configurations. First, create the shapes you wish to include in your smart symbol, and then use the Group command to place them into a group. Once you have a grouped objects, right-click on the shape and select Convert to Smart Symbol as shown in Figure 2. Alternatively, you can click the Convert Symbol button in the Smart Symbols section on the Dynamics tab of the ribbon. There are two options in the dialog: Expose data sources as Smart Properties and Optimize hierarchical data sources as shown in Figure 2.
Figure Automatic Smart Binding Options The Expose data sources as Smart Properties option is checked by default, which saves the data source properties of the smart symbol as Smart Properties so they can be changed with each use of the smart symbol; all properties that are connected to data go into the Smart Properties section.
If you uncheck this option, the data sources will be saved with the smart symbol and cannot be changed when the smart symbol is reused unless you drill into the particular option with the data source attached. This is only useful when you want to reuse a smart symbol whose data sources are always the same. The Optimize hierarchical data sources option is used for hierarchical data that was associated with OPC data sources to perform automatic complex data binding. When you select this option, all descendant objects of the group are examined for existing data source connections.
All found data sources are analyzed to determine common hierarchical roots. Then a new Smart Property is added for each unique hierarchical root, and the descendant data source properties are automatically bound to that Smart Property by combining the Smart Property value the common hierarchical root with the remaining unique portion of the data source. For example, if you have the following two tags: opc.
In this dialog, you can add and define any smart properties that you want to expose in configuration mode, paying special attention to the PropertyType and DefaultValue. Depending on the PropertyType you pick, the DefaultValue field may contain different available data. Figure Edit Smart Properties Notice that if you had checked the Expose data sources as Smart Properties option in the Automatic Smart Binding Options dialog, the data sources within the group object is already listed as a smart property.
All you need to do is edit the properties of the individual smart property to your liking or you can leave it as default if you wish. To add other smart properties, you can simply click the Add button.
You will then get a new property in the Members section. The right-hand pane will give you the definitions of this property. Fill out specific information for this property. You can add as many smart properties as you wish. Once you are done editing or adding your smart properties, you can click OK to finish creating the Smart Symbol Reusing a Smart Symbol Once you create your symbol, it s easy to reuse it as often as you need.
Once you have a second copy of the object, you can change the smart properties accordingly to show you the data you want to see. One way is to save the display itself and each time you need to use the symbol, open the display with the Smart Symbol and copy it from the original display to the destination one. This way works, but is far from the easiest way to get the object into a display.
The easier way would be to insert the Smart Symbol into the Symbols Library so that it is always there when you need to use it. To add your Smart Symbol into the symbols library, first, choose the category into which you want to add the symbol.
Then you can select the symbol, copy it and paste it into the category. Alternatively, you can hold down the control key, then select the symbol, and drag it into the category. Note that this method only works for 2D symbols; but the copy and paste method always works. Once you add your Smart Symbol into the symbols library, you can always access it whenever you open a GraphWorX64 display.
You can edit a Smart Symbol the same way that you edit any grouped objects. In the Explorer, you can drill into the different parts of the symbol and then insert additional objects into the symbol. You can also double-click on the symbol in the display to drill into it. The Explorer just provides a clearer view of the Smart Symbol s hierarchy of objects. One of the most common things to edit in a Smart Symbol is probably the Smart Properties. A child object is not limited to visual objects; a child object can also be a non-visual object such as an animation definition a.
In the previous section, we have discussed how we can add Smart Properties into a Smart Symbol in the process of creating the symbol. Let us now look at how we can add a smart property after creating a Smart Symbol. Well will examine how we bind a property in the next section, for now, let us discuss how to add Smart Properties after you have made a group of objects into a Smart Symbol. Let us take a quick detour and first understand what makes up a smart property. From the earlier section, you saw the Edit Smart Properties dialog shown in Figure 2.
Consider our gauge09 Smart Symbol. It contains two needles for the two gauges. We can expose both needles color as a smart property, allowing us to change the color of both needles at the same time at the top level.
To do this, we will first select one of the needles. For the sake of discussion, we will choose the one on the left-hand side which is Path3. Since we want to change its color, in the properties of the object, look for the Fill property. Once you find it, right-click on the field and select Add to Smart Properties. It will give you a default name based on the type of property you want to make into a Smart Property.
If you don t like the default name, you can type in your own. This action adds the property, along with its current value as the default to the Smart Properties list. A two click action therefore replaces opening the Editor, creating a new property, determining its PropertyType, setting a default value, and such. Now, you can go back to the top level of the Smart symbol and see the additional Smart Property we just introduced. You can click on the property field and change the color. You will notice that once you pick a different color, the left needle s color changes.
Figure Color Changed on the Left Needle If you wish, you can right-click on the new Smart Properties property and select the Edit Smart Property option to view and edit the properties of the Smart Property Smart Property Bindings After you have inserted objects or dynamics into a Smart Symbol, you can associate the already exposed smart properties to these objects.
This way, you can configure the property of the particular object when you change it on the parent level. The process of associating a regular property to a smart property is called Property Binding. You can do this by right-clicking on the property in which you want to add as a smart property and select Smart Binding Editor in the right-click context menu. Keeping with our previous example, we will select guage09 s right needle which is Polygon21 , right-click in its Fill property and select the binding option as shown in Figure ICONICS, Inc 43 Smart Symbols Figure Right-click Context Menu to Bind Smart Properties Once you click on this link, the Edit Property Binding dialog will come up and you can select any of the smart properties available on the left-hand pane and click the Add button to add it.
If there are additional logics that you want to insert, you can change it in the Binding Logic section on the right-hand pane. Since all we want to do here is to associate this property with our needle color Smart Property we created before, we will only select the property on the lefthand side, click the "Add" button and then click on "OK" to exit out of the dialog. The property that you select to bind to a Smart Property now has a yellow cylinder icon next to it and the properties field is grayed out showing you the Smart Property value.
Also, the default color set for the property takes effect and the needle changes to that color as well. There is just one thing, they would like the line to be automatic with a switch as oppose to the different radio buttons that we were using. Also, since they have different lines running at the same time, they would like to make it so that their engineers can use some symbols that we build later on, change the tags associate in a few clicks and start a new bottling line.
We will try to accomplish this task in this chapter with smart symbols and simple expressions. Estimated time to complete this lab: 20 minutes Task Checklist In this lab, you will complete the following tasks: Create a smart switch to control the bottling line Create a smart bottling line Support Files You will need the following files to complete this lab: ictonics US Facility. There are three smart properties associated with this tank: a local simulation variable that controls the locations dynamic of the top of the tank, the churning blade status tag, and the tank level tag.
If you don t remember how each of the tags is used in the display, you can drill into the symbol and look at the different dynamics to find out how it works. The tank was our first introduction to Smart Symbols. In the next section, we will expand on this topic. When the process begins, we will start the churning blade in the tank, as well as begin the bottling conveyor line.
Since we have different production lines, we will also make this a Smart Symbol so that we can associate different data sources to it later. Open the ictonics US Facility. Since there are no preconfigured switches available, we will quickly make one our self. The switch we will build contains two rectangles for the plate, and a switch with two states, which contains two more rectangles and two circles.
Your switch may look similar to the one shown in Figure L2. Figure L2. You can add a Toggle Value Pick Action to the entire switch so that that state changes each time you click on it. Once you are happy with the switch, with it selected, on the Dynamics tab of the ribbon, click the Convert Symbol button in the Smart Symbols section. The Automatic Smart Binding Options dialog comes up.
You can leave the selection as default and click on "OK" to continue. You should have a smart property in there since you used a data source to control the show and hide of the state as well as the pick action to switch the state. You can add an option description if you wish. We can name this SmartSwitch. Hold down the Ctrl key and select your SmartSwitch and drag it into the trainings symbols library.
This way, we can reuse it later. Now, you can make your entire line a smart symbol and store it in the symbols library. We will just make a couple of changes to it. Select all the bottles and the conveyor and group it, then select the option to make it into a smart symbol. Since we did not automatically add any smart properties, you will not see any in the Smart Symbol s property. However, we can add some by right-clicking in any field of the Properties section and select Edit Smart Properties option.
In the Edit Smart Properties dialog, click the Add button to add a new property. For the default value, let s create a new simulation tag called bottle. You can leave everything as default for this simulation variable. The idea here is to automate the line when we turn on the switch. To do this, we are going to control the four steps we have in the control board with just one variable. So we need to change some of the dynamics created in this display. First, for each location dynamics on a bottle change it so that the data source is bind to the smart property.
The Data section of the one of the dynamic should look like Figure 2. Figure Configuration of a Location Dynamic on a Bottle Note: You can try to copy the dynamic to each of the objects after changing the Data Section of one location dynamic. Just be sure that if you do this, double check that the end location is still correct. On the overlaid bottles one that s fill and contains the locations dynamic and one that has the fill dynamic , change the Hide Dynamic on the bottle with the Locations dynamics so that it hides the bottle when the tag is greater than 1 and greater than or equals 3.
Don t forget to bind the DataSource to the smart property. On the Hide dynamic for the bottle that has the fill dynamic, make it so that the bottle shows when the tag has a value between 1 and 4. Again, you should bind the data source to the smart property.
Figure Hide Dynamic for the Filling Bottle Now drill into the filling bottle and find the fill. Change the size dynamic here so that it will start when the tag has a value of 3. You should bind the DataSource to the smart property once more. The last thing is the extension tube that fills the bottles. You can change it so that the tube extends between the values 2 and 3.
Remember to bind the DataSource to the smart property. Figure Location Dynamics for the Extension Tube By now, you probably have figured out that depending on the value of bottles, it will control the stage of the bottling line. We will now configure a checkbox that will change the state of bottle for us.
Add a check box to the display and set the Pick Action to Write Value. The data source should be the bottle variable. Your Pick Action configuration should look similar to Figure 2. Figure Checkbox Pick Action Now, let s also set the data source for our switch to the bottle variable.
You can hide the radio buttons in the control board and move the switch into that section. You can hide the checkbox as well since we don t need to interact with it in runtime. Go into runtime, try flipping the switch between the on and off state and see your bottling line run.
They greatly simplify the configuration and save engineering time by allowing a configuration of properties of inner objects without a need to drill-into the symbol. A smart symbol can be configured without needing to drill-into the symbol to make it work.
Changing the value of a property of a Smart Symbol called a smart property , automatically changes the value s of the associated properties of the descendant objects. Before you continue to the next chapter, be sure that you can answer the following questions. True or False: You can convert any grouped objects into a Smart Symbol. True or False: You can only edit Smart Symbols on the symbols level and not on the individual object level. A Smart Symbol has the following features: a. You can expose data sources as smart properties automatically when creating a Smart Symbol b.
You can easily add, edit, or remove Smart Properties from a Smart Symbol c. You can change a Smart Property that is linked to five other properties in the Smart Symbol at the same time. Only A and C g. Only B and C h. None of the above 6. A group of controls b. A group of process points c. A group of dynamics d. The possibilities offered by scripting are endless, but let us introduce some examples: You can read from and write to an OPC data source You can write your own logic to manipulate and perform computation over your data You can use scripts to connect to a remote database and pass that data to some GraphWorX64 component for visualization You can alter GraphWorX64 objects properties You can dynamically create and control the content of a 3D View control You can call GENESIS64 API functions to take full control of the product This is just a few possible examples.
GraphWorX64 utilizes JScript. NET, which is a programming language in the. NET allows you to call. This means you can write your own DLL and use it inside the product, interfacing to it through scripting. NET is a. Apart for some syntactical differences and a few limitations, JScript. NET is no different from other well-known. Although scripting is a very useful feature, you should still remember that GraphWorX64 is by itself a very powerful product.
For this reason, you should not abuse the power of scripting to perform tasks that can easily be carried out by using the built-in feature of GraphWorX On the other hand, you may want to write a script to read several different OPC data source values, apply some logic on the values and execute some command only if a specific condition is met. In this case, it s perfectly fine to use a script, but you may want to consider using an expression to evaluate your condition instead.
This is just a matter of personal preferences, of course. If you like to write your own code, we will not stop you from doing it, however, we strongly suggest that you first try using the built-in features whenever is possible. You will probably find that over time, you will need to create more powerful custom projects that require scripting in GraphWorX For example, when a display is loaded into runtime, you may want to prompt the user with an instructional message box, or a form, that might not be available through the GraphWorX64 configurator.
We will now explore several concepts that will be useful for working with scripting along with a few examples. This window is usually docked on the lower left hand side of the display, as shown in Figure 3. Along the top of the Script Editor, there is an Auto-Hide orientation to sideways actively using it. Toolbox: Allows you to import selected Windows form control into your scripting forms.
Properties: Allows you to configure properties of a form created in the script editor. Code View: Allows you to view the source code of your script. Design View: Available when a form exists in the script editor. Allows you to visually see your form and edit it without writing code. One of the most useful features of the Script Editor is IntelliSense, which can be used when writing code in the Code View.
Using IntelliSense makes writing scripts tremendously easier because as you are typing, you will see a tooltip that lets you see the available attributes for that object, as well as a description of what that attribute does. For example, you may want to show a Message Box, but forgot the correct functions to apply. Using IntelliSense, as shown in Figure 3. Once you are in the script editor, you will see that there is a toolbar in the Modules tab.
The toolbar allows you to create and modify script modules. It includes the following features, as listed from left to right in Figure 3. Rename Selected Script Module: Allows you to rename the selected script module. Edit Namespace: Opens the Namespace dialog box, where you can create shortcuts to use with scripts.
NOTE: For more information about the features of the script editor, please refer to the Help Documentation included in GraphWorX General Scripting Practices As you become more familiar with scripting in GraphWorX64, you will come across several features that you will see time and time again. In this section, you will learn how to create a script, and when to use the more common global variables.
In this example, you will see the steps needed to set a script to run from the click of a button in runtime mode. Starting in configuration mode, add a button to your display and select the RunScript command for its Dynamic Behavior. From the Dynamics tab, select the Events button. This will display the possible events related to this dynamic, which in this example is just the RunScript event.
There are two ways of naming this script. The first is to double-click on the RunScript event, which creates a function by using the dynamics name and the dynamic performed. The second way is to enter a name for the script yourself manually. Whichever way you use to create the script, after double-clicking, or after pressing enter once you entered the name of a script, the Script Options dialog will appear, as shown in Figure 3.
The dialog gives you the option to create a form by checking the Add a new Form check box. If you choose to create a form, it will be displayed when the script runs. You do not have to create a form if it is not necessary. To complete the process of creating a script function, simply click OK in the Script Options dialog and you will be brought to the Code View in the Script Editor.
Figure Script Options Dialog It makes a slight difference in creating modules depending on how you created your script and the name you gave it. If you scrutinize the Modules list, you will notice that there is also a module called Pick1Code. And if you have chosen to create a form with it, there will be a form in the module tree call Pick1Form.
However, if you simply type in the name of a script, for the sake of our example, let us call it Script1, you will have a function called just that, but there is no module created where the function resides. Instead, this function resides in the ThisDisplayCode module. Anything in front of the underscore will be treated as the module name. Appended to this name is the word Code and therefore, the entire name of the module will end up being mymodulecode.
In this example, the script name was automatically generated and the Add a new Form checkbox was not checked. Object, cmdargs : Ico. For example, you can enter the code shown below in the function body, to create a Message Box that displays Hello World! Show "Hello World! These variables, for example, allow you to interact with the currently loaded display, to retrieve objects, symbols, and dynamics to work with them.
Most of your scripts will use these variables, and for this reason, it is very important to understand them, and to know when to use which in your scripts. ThisConfiguration Related functions to manipulating objects such as process points, rectangles, etc.
If you are familiar with scripting in GraphWorX32, then this would be most comparable to using ThisDisplay. ThisDocument Related to all the runtime functionality including the options found on the Properties tab in configuration mode.
ThisWindow Related to the view area of the display, such as the dimensions of the viewing area, or converting point coordinates. To understand how these variables should be used inside a script better, consider the following example. We will slightly change the Hello World! Suppose we need to interact with an object on the display to read some of its properties. In this case, we will try to read the button s caption since it s the only object we have on the display.
Show b. You can see how to declare a variable, and how to specify its type. Finally, you can see how to use the ThisConfiguration variable to retrieve an object on the display by mean of the GetObjectByName function. Please note that the parameter of this function is the button s name.
If you changed the name of your button, you also need to change this string to match with your chosen name. The second line is no different from our previous example, except for the message itself. Instead of using a plain string Hello World! When you go into Runtime Mode and you click on your button, you should see something similar to Figure 3. For this reason, a complete coverage of Scripting is not possible, and the only way to master this technology is through experience and by studying existing examples.
Therefore, this section introduces you to some other basic examples, which you may be considered as a building block that you can combine together to create more complex scripts for use in your application Reading from an OPC Tag One of the most important features of GENESIS64 is its capability to interface with many different data sources. This data is used to animate your graphics elements and to perform a number of other tasks. For this reason, it is quite important to be able to access this wealth of information also through scripting, so that you can create your own logic to process and consume that data.
There are several ways to read an OPC Tag through scripting, and in this section, you will learn one of them. In this example, we will trigger our script by clicking on a button as in the previous examples. The script will read a couple of data source values and will present them in a message box dialog. First, we need to prepare our display. Place a Process Point and define localsim:sine as its data source. Then, give this dynamic a name, such as PPT1.
Second, we need to add a Data Entry object which is like an editable Process Point. Define a new simulated variable and name this object as PPT2. You should be familiar with the procedure to create a button and let the system generate a new script function for you. If you feel uncomfortable in doing this, please review the previous section. We can now start writing the script function, which will read and show the data source values.
This is not too different from the previous example where we have read the button s text. Show String. In this case, we use a different function because we want to get a dynamic object, instead of a regular object. Once we have retrieved the two process point objects, we can show a message with their values. The result of running such a script is shown in Figure 3.
This is because the GraphWorX64 display is still animating behind the message box, thus the process point value is continuously changing Writing to an OPC Tag In this section, we will learn how to write a value to an OPC tag. We can reuse the previous example, and simply enhance it, by adding a new button running a different script to write some value to a data source. The process point where we want to write the value to is the PPT2 Process Point from the previous example.
To make it more interesting, the value we are going to write will be the value read from PPT1. For this reason, we do not need to do anything particular to change our display other than adding a new button, which we will do now. The button should be set to run a script, and a new script function should be generated. This function takes as a parameter the value to write to its associated data source, which in this case is the other process point s value.
A third way of invoking the login dialog is through scripting. Then, double-click the RunScript event and do not check the box for Add a new form to display the Script Editor. Next, add the following code to the empty function body: ThisWindow. ShowLoginDialog ; This function has only one line of code, which is the one needed to show the Security Login dialog.
When going into Runtime Mode, and pressing the button, you should see the Security Login dialog come up as shown in Figure 3. Estimated time to complete this lab: 20 minutes Task Checklist In this lab, you will complete the following tasks: Understand the logic behind the Login button Add logic to simulate tank level Add logic to shutoff valves when the tank is full Support Files You will need the following files to complete this lab: ictonicshome. This is exactly what we used in the ictonicshome.
In this section of the lab, we will look at the code behind the button. Locate the ictonicstankmonitor. Open the Script Editor and pin it. In the ThisDisplayCode module, you should see a function called Login. In this function, there is one line of code that brings up the login dialog that you seen when you click on it. It is very easy to write some script to achieve what you need. Open the ictonicstankmonitor. Add a checkbox to the display; change the Command to Run Script. Press the enter key when you are done.
In the Script Options dialog that comes up, just click on "OK". In this script, we are going to read in the water valve and syrup valve status. If the valves are open, we are going to increase the tank level. We have shown you the code of how to read and write to a process point during the lecture portion; therefore, we will not show you the exact code here.
But you can refer to the pseudo code below for the logic, if you are not sure, refer to the lecture or the API Reference Guide. You do not need to add any additiona process points on the display. This will allow us to run the script every second updating the value at this interval.
Go into runtime and see that the checkbox is automatically checked. Open your valves and see that the tank fills up. We will now hide this checkbox on the display so that the operators will not see it. Hint: Remember the eye in the Explorer? Go into runtime and test your display. NOTE: You do not need to write scripts to achieve what we did in this lab. You can use a checkbox with expressions to get the same results. We did it with a script here to give you some practice.
The language used is Jscript. Net, which belongs to the. Knowledge in this field will certainly help when you begin to create your scripts. Although we allow you to achieve special tasks with scripts, you should consider it as a last resource. GENESIS64 includes many different features; you should always explore the natively available features before you consider using a script to achieve the task. When you begin creating your scripts, there are a couple helpful tools.
It contains all the API documentation with the list of classes, methods, properties and events, as well as their description, parameters, remarks, etc. Furthermore, the script editor contains a built-in IntelliSense functionality.
As you script, IntelliSense will show you the available methods and the parameters required. Throughout this chapter, we have shown you scripting examples in using a message box, reading and writing to an OPC point, and bring up dialogs such as the Security Login dialog. You can use these as the basis for more complicated scripts 3. Before you move on to the next chapter, please be sure that you can answer the following questions.
Which programming language does GraphWorX64 uses for scripting? NET b. NET d. VB Script 2. ThisDisplay b. ThisConfiguration c. ThisDocument d. ThisWindow 3. Which function can you use to read a simulated point localism::var1 on a GraphWorX64 display? Let s assume that we have already declared a variable called Point that refers to object on the display.
Value c. GetValueFromDynamicObject d. Which function can you use to reference a button on a GraphWorX64 display? GetObjectByName b. GetObjectByName c. GetDynamicObjectByName d. GetDynamicObjectByName 6. True or False: You can add more references to your script. True or False: You cannot create any forms for your scripts. You can only use GraphWorX64 popup windows as your forms.
NET in GraphWorX64 and provided you with examples to perform some basic functions like reading the value of a process point with scripting. In this chapter, we will continue our discussion on scripting and expand to include several different things that you can do with scripting.
We will also go through a few ways that the API reference can help you in your endeavor to add scripts to your project. However, there are certain times that you may want to change an object's property or even insert objects onto the display in runtime mode.
There is no native way to do this within GraphWorX64 while you are in runtime mode. Although through scripting, it is possible to alter the appearance of certain objects and insert them in runtime mode. In this section, we will demonstrate how you can quickly alter or add an object to a display in runtime mode.
If you wish to save the changes that you make during runtime, you must change back to configuration mode and then save your display Changing Object Properties in Runtime Mode Once you have a 2D object on your display, it is then possible to manipulate the object while in runtime through scripting. In the following example, you will see how to change the color of an ellipse and then how to hide it. As usual, once you have inserted an ellipse onto the display in configuration mode, you will then need to give it a name, as shown in Figure 4.
Then place a button on the display to run a script that will change the Fill color of the ellipse. Figure Naming the Ellipse in Configuration Mode Now you need to write a script that will change the Fill color of the ellipse as well as make it into a circle. The first line of code will create a GwxEllipse variable and will get a reference to the ellipse itself. The second line will change the Fill property of the ellipse, and the last line, sets the horizontal radius equal to the vertical radius, which will change it into a circle.
GetObjectByName "Ellipse1" ; ellipse. HotPink; ellipse. You should see the ellipse s Fill color change to the one defined in the script when pressing the button. The result should look similar to Figure 4. You can find all these properties in the API Reference documentation. Just look under the GwxEllipse Members. This would contain all the Methods and Properties for this type of objects. This applies to other classes as well, such as the GwxRectangle, which we will look at next Inserting Objects on a Display The way you usually insert an object into a display is by the commands found in the ribbon.
However, you can also do this with scripting. In this example, you will be inserting a blue rectangle into your GraphWorX64 display while in Runtime mode. We start by creating a new display, where we will place a button whose pick action is Run Script.
Instead of double-clicking on the event name to generate a default-named function, we will use CreateRectangle as the function name and then press enter to go to the Script Editor to edit this new function. In the script, we need to declare the Rectangle object, create the object including its size and color, and then display the object. Blue; Once you have entered this code, save your display and enter runtime mode to test your button. You should see a blue rectangle on your display as shown in Figure 4.
Figure Rectangle Created in Runtime Mode You will see that when you switch back to Configuration Mode, the new rectangle is still there. This is the intended behavior and can be used to generate your display through scripting. Suppose, for example, that you have to draw a lot of objects placed in a well known way. You can automate this by writing a script that will draw all the objects for you, then go back into Configuration Mode and simply use the newly created objects The Code Digested Let us take a closer look at the code written here.
First, we declared a variable of the type GwxRectangle. You may wonder at this point, how you would know which type to use. In here, it lists all of the classes available inside the GraphWorX64 namespace. This means that if you are looking for a certain class like the GwxRectangle, it would be listed there along with a description. Although there are many different classes available, they are named intuitively.
If you are not sure of the object type, you can always add the object you wish to use first into your GraphWorX64 display, and look at the Object Explorer, it will tell you the type of the object. The next line allows you to create a rectangle with specific properties. If we look at the reference guide, you will find the declaration for the function as shown in Figure 4. As you type in the function in your script editor, you should also see IntelliSense which guides you to the different parameters you need.
Create Declaration There are five parameters here. First, it is looking for a GraphWorX64 Configuration. In this case, we can use the variable ThisConfiguration to satisfy this criterion. Secondly, it is looking for a dimension of the rectangle. In this case, we are using a structure inside the. The rest of the parameters are intuitive from the naming convention. It is looking for a parent element of the rectangle, whether to select the rectangle after we create it, and a location to initialize the properties of the rectangle.
In the case of our example, the parent is the root of the display since there is no other object on the display. We get to the root by using ThisConfiguration. Then, since we do not want to select the object after creating it, we give a false for the fourth parameter. Finally, it asks for a GraphWorX64 element, but since we cannot derive from this class as specified in the API Reference, we will give it a null object.
This completes the creation of the rectangle. The last line allows us to set the color for the rectangle. As you type, you will probably notice a window that lists many different colors under the Brushes class. Feel free to choose your favorite color from the list as opposed to the blue that we used in our example GraphWorX64 Shapes As you may have noticed in the previous examples that both GwxEllipse and GwxRectangle have the property Fill, which allows you to specify the color that fills the object.
Since there are shared properties and methods, knowing how to use a method or property for one type of GwxShape means you know how to use it for all of the shapes. This concept applies to all shapes within GraphWorX Now, you may ask, what is considered a GwxShape? Well, if you take a look at the Shapes section in the Home tab of the ribbon, you will find most of your shapes in there.
Line, Arc, Spline, and Polyline may seem unrelated to shapes at a glance after all, they are line segments. But, if you drill down far enough, you will notice that these eventually all inherit the GwxShape class. This concept does not stop with shapes; it can apply to other objects too. For example, you can look at the GwxProcessPoint class. As you know, a process point is a dynamic, and if you drill down enough, you will find a class called GwxDynamic. And if you know how to use the DataSource properties on a process point object, chances are, you know how to use the same property on any other dynamics, like a color dynamic since they inherit the same base class.
For example you may want to prompt the user to enter some information i. In these cases, you can take advantage of the Script Editor to create and edit a form. First, let us start with a brand new display, where we add a button. We set this button s pick action to Run Script and we double click the RunScript event to have it generates the function for us.
However, this time, we will choose to create a new form. Figure Creating a new Form We can also choose if we want the form to be modal. In this case, we want it to be modal, because we do not want the user to do any other action before they confirm the information present in the form.
If you click the ThisDisplayForm on the left-hand pane in the editor, you will see something similar to Figure 4.
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