Conflicts between different cultures in the workplace
Cross cultural conflict in the workplace is important to address proactively to ensure the impacts don't linger or escalate. When employees with different. People from different cultures may dress differently, talk differently and have different priorities and work ethics. Disputes can happen between people. People from diffusive cultures may feel that the completion of tasks is completed faster when they work after hours and sacrifice their lunch time. However. DISTANCE CALCULATOR BETWEEN TWO PLACES IN PUNE
Elder respect can often keep conflict from being addressed and managed. Another layer to overcome is that of time. For many Western cultures time is seen as something linear, measurable, and highly valued. If you say the meeting starts at am, a Westerner expects everyone to be seated and ready to go on time. For many other cultures time is more relaxed or flexible. Because of this, personal relationships will always trump time. Meetings may start late and project deadlines are flexible.
Learning how to wade the murky waters of time will go far in understanding conflict. One layer that has tremendous affect on intercultural conflict in the workplace is styles of leadership. For some employees those above them need to be static and demanding to earn their respect.
In other cultures the leader should be personally invested in the private and family lives of their workers. In some cultures, leaders expect and encourage their employees to contradict and challenge them if they have a different idea or opinion. In other words, they encourage a conflict and see it also as a positive tool for creative thinking, independence and quick problem solving.
Understanding the various expectations your co-workers have towards leadership will help to diffuse conflict or manage it better. So there are many different approaches and factors that impact on conflict, when it ccurs in an multicultural situation. However, if conflict is handled ineffectively or if conflict is ignored, the results can be damaging.
Conflicting goals can quickly turn into personal dislike, ineffective teamwork , loss of trust, and talent is wasted as people disengage from their work. Conflict within the workplace can result in a vicious downward spiral of negativity. Harmony, getting along and maintaining 'face' are seen as crucial. However, examples of both are found everywhere. It assumes that a relatively high percentage of the workforce comes from a social environment that is collectivist.
Individualists and collectivists view conflict differently. Collectivists, who place a high value on harmony, getting along and 'face' see conflict as a sign of social failure. As a result, comfort levels with conflict situations, especially of an interpersonal nature are low.
Conflict is often avoided. While many individualists also feel discomfort with conflict, it is acknowledged as an inevitable part of life that must be dealt with. However, being in conflict with another is not necessarily something to be ashamed about and especially in the work place it is something that must be dealt with.
The different cultures will handle conflict differently, for example the Nigerian and Americans will be more aggressive in handling conflict while the Chinese will avoid being in conflict. Some of the ways Maersk Group has helped handle conflict, is through the suggestion boxes where it is then discussed, encouraging team buildings in departments where employees get to know one another minimizing conflict, as well as an online platform done annually by all employees where they give feedback and suggestions on areas of improvement to the senior management.
Sources of conflict The sources of conflict will play a critical role in determining the best way to deal with conflict. The best way to resolve something that is not going right, is to figure out what made it go wrong in the first place, so as to know where to begin from to make it right.
In this case, knowing what brings about any conflict is what will help manage it. According to Mayer , the six major sources of conflict include methods of communication, emotions, history, values, structures and needs. The language used, the emotions involves and if they have considered the tone of voice they have used. Different cultural backgrounds in this instance of employs, can influence how they communicate and how they resolve conflict.
Involvement and Role of Third Parties Employees from a collectivist culture will probably be more comfortable with a fellow team member addressing a conflict, rather than bringing in someone from the outside. Individualists, on the other hand, may prefer an impartial outsider, whose relationship to the team is remote-such as a Human Resource representative or another departmental head.
The expected role of the third party is also influenced by cultural dimensions. In western, individualistic cultures mediation has evolved as a process in which the third party does not make decisions for the disputants. Some mediators provide an evaluation of the strengths and weakness and they are described as evaluative.
At the other end of this continuum are mediators who do not make evaluations. They are purely facilitative. In collectivist cultures, mediators are often expected to provide counsel, evaluate and advise in an effort to restore harmony. Disputants engage a third party precisely because they are unable to find a solution themselves. Communication Styles There are a number of factors that contribute to communication style. One factor is the extent to which it is expressive or restrained. Some employees may have been socialized to reveal strong emotions and to feel comfortable with prolonged eye contact and touch.
Others may be more stoic, and mask emotions with a poker face, use monotone speech and avoid eye contact. These different communication styles are not problematic in and of themselves. However, problems arise when value judgments are made on the basis of the different styles. For example, if employees disagree and one represents his views and feelings forcefully with a raised voice, another more restrained team member may see that as arrogant. The same 'arrogant' employee may conclude that the restrained team member is untrustworthy because eye contact is not maintained.
Another area of difference relates to directness. Some cultures are very direct. They like to 'cut to the chase' and get frustrated with someone who 'beats around the bush'. Indirect cultures prefer to deal with relational aspects first, and to restore harmony before addressing substantive issues. Negotiation Style Negotiation is a means to satisfy needs. It can be broken down into one of two approaches- positional and interest based. Positional negotiation involves haggling over extreme positions without a clear understanding of underlying interests.
By contrast, an interest based approach focuses on the needs and concerns of the disputants. An interest based approach is widely used by conflict resolution practitioners, especially in western cultures. It has been popularized through books such as "Getting to Yes" Fisher, Ury and Patton but the extent of its internalization is limited.
Teams should consider their own negotiation styles and make an explicit decision as to whether they will use an interest based or positional negotiation approach. During negotiations, cultures that prefer a direct communication style will seek direct, face to face communication rather than indirect shuttle diplomacy.
There are other cultural factors that have a bearing on the way an organization will approach conflict prevention and resolution. Sunoo These include: - Our relationship to time Whether we are monochromic and do one thing at a time or polychromic and do several things at once. Whether we expect the process to have a start and end or to be an ongoing process - Our relationship to rules Whether we value rules and order over feelings and relationships - Our relationship to venue Whether we are private or public, indoor or outdoor, formal or informal Implications from cultural diverse organizations Sunoo Given that organizations are comprised of diverse individuals with unique cultural backgrounds, what lessons can we distill for the successful prevention and resolution of conflict?
Know yourself and your own culture Starting with yourself, examine your own beliefs, values, biases, and prejudices. Know how to behave and what your hot buttons are. Locate your individual culture in the context of your family, regional, and national cultures. Know what the social, political and economic context of the day is. Being aware of our own cultures helps us to be open to different ideas. We are able to compare and contrast different approaches without being threatened. The only way we will know what fellow employees expect is to have an explicit conversation about the nature of conflict and how we prefer to deal with it when it arises.
This should lead to a more general conversation that addresses how the team wants to work together. The sooner this happens the better. We can also read books and watch movies to understand others culture. Learning about a new culture takes time. There is the surface culture, and then there is that which what a hidden deep culture is.
Check your assumptions As we filter incoming information through our senses Sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch it is natural to make assumptions. We should develop acceptable communication protocols to check out the basis of our perceptions.
Failure to do so leads to inaccurate stereotypes and may foster negative feelings of hostility. One approach is to give specific feedback on the behavior you observed "I noticed that you avoided eye contact when we were discussing the situation. Can you tell me what was going on? Your first interpretation is not necessarily correct. Another variation is to give feedback on how you felt when the specified behavior occurred.
Listening Listening is widely acknowledged as a key conflict prevention and resolution skill. Care should be taken not to impose an approach to listening that causes discomfort. Not all cultures are comfortable expressing feelings in public.
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