Difference between space and place de certeau heterologies
Scientificity creates a space for itself by eliminating what does not conform to it. (14). Every institution gives a position. It does not give legitimation. . Focusing on the relation between work as a managerially ordered place and conditions for creativity within such an order, this article uses a number of. Foucaulfss reconceptualisation of power, the spatial theory of Lefebvre (see Roberts ,. Niemannn & Davies ) and the practice theory of Bourdieu (de. THE CLASSIC TURTLE TRADER FOREX
He writes, I will state my argument without delay: literature is the theoretic discourse of the historical process. It creates the non-topos where the effective operations of a society attain a formalization. Literature is the discursive mode of History. Thus, literature itself is historical. De Certeau relates this argument to Freud, whose work often takes a, self-proclaimed, novel-like form.
De Certeau explains that, Although Freudian interpretation takes the form of a novel, it remains nonetheless historical. The law of historiography functions to obscure nothingness, to suppress the void, to fill the gap. The discourse must not appear separate from its referents. The absence of loss at the origin of this construct must not be unveiled.
Okay, so now we have psychoanalysis, historiography, History and literature all in the mix. From here de Certeau goes on some crazy case-study escapades. Which means that I am hereby skipping from his second essay straight through to his twelfth.
Okay, good. His writing sparkles with incisive formulations. He is amusing. His erudition confounds his; his skills compels assent; his art seduces. Yet something in us resists. Or rather, the initial charm gives way to a kind of second-degree assent, a complicity that remains after we have taken a step back from the first flush of bewitchment, but whose basis we would be hard-pressed to explain. Okay, fine. Order emerges from disorder only in the form of the equivocal.
Reason, rediscovered in its underlying coherence, is always being lost because it is forever inseparable from an illusion. Pithy, right? And totally right on. In fact, the micro-techniques provide not only the content of the discourse but also the process of its construction de Certeau, It is a narrative, a theoretical narrative, which obeys rules analogous to those panoptic procedures.
There is no epistemological and hierarchical break between the theoretical text and the micro-techniques. He writes: Two short propositions may be an introduction to a debate, and may take the place of a conclusion. They organize the very construction of theory itself. With Foucault we get another way of building a theory, a theory which is the literary gesture of those procedures themselves.
Stories slowly appear as a work of displacements, relating to a logic of metonymy. Is it not then time to recognize the theoretical legitimacy of narrative, which is then to be looked upon not as some ineradicable remnant or remnant still to be eradicated but rather as a necessary form for a theory of practices? In this hypothesis, a narrative theory would be indissociable from any theory of practices, for it would be its precondition as well as its production.
What, do you imagine that I would take so much trouble and so much pleasure in writing, do you think that I would keep so persistently to my task, if I were not preparing — with a rather shaky hand — a labyrinth into which I can venture, in which I can move my discourse, opening up underground passages, forcing it to go far from itself, finding overhangs that reduce and deform its itinerary, in which I can lose myself and appear at last to eyes that I will never have to meet again.
I am no doubt not the only one who writes in order to have no face. Do not ask who I am and do not ask me to remain the same: leave it to our bureaucrats and our police to see that our papers are in order. At least spare us their morality when we write. Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge, p. It is his philosophical signature on the irony of history de Certeau, It is not Mr.
Foucault who is making fun of domains of knowledge and predictions, or pre-visions; it is history that is laughing at them. It plays tricks on the teleologists who take themselves to the be the lieutenants of meaning. The lucidity comes from an attentiveness, always mobile, always surprised, to what events show us without our knowing it.
The politics of the visible is the terrain of philosophy in this domain. De Certeau writes about this, that Already a major locus for Merleau-Ponty, the visible constitutes for Foucault the contemporary theater of our fundamental options.
It is here that a use of space for policing purposes is confronted by a vigilance attuned to what else happens there. Mustered on this terrain of our epistemological wars, the work of philosophy oppose the systems that subject space to surveillance with paradoxes that chance encounters produce in it; it opposes the panoptic leveling with discontinuities revealed in thought by chance.
Two practices of space clash in the field of visibility, the one ordered by discipline, the other based on astonishment. She is just sixteen months old, but she already moves towards you and tries to talk to you. Is it a question, an expression of love or the narration of a success? It is impossible to know […] Your word comes back to you from the place it has awakened, and you already do not recognize it in this hidden meaning poem: born from a love, now it reveals to you the existence of your child De Certeau , 45 Footnote 4 In an article first published in , entitled Giving the speech, Footnote 5 Michel De Certeau describes the experience of being in front of an infant who is pronouncing her first words.
While pronouncing those senseless sounds, Anna is already emerging as a subject, distinct and unrecognizable from the adult: she is breaking the laws of language that someone is trying to teach her in order to speak with her own voice. Anna is expressing, without the mediation of any specific content, the pureness of her subjectivity. He is no more giving the speech to others: they are taking it De Certeau , He foresees a void, which ultimately is in himself.
He steps back, because such uncertainty is inconsistent with his confidence De Certeau , 50 Adults fear the dispossession of their own word, they fear being speechless in front of their children. He fears not being in control of the educational process. Such dispossession is not absolute, but nevertheless lies at the core of the educational process. To further clarify this, I will now move to a more mature text—The practice of everyday life—to present the interplay between strategy and tactics as useful to further understand the adult-young relationship.
Teaching Strategies and Learning Tactics The practice of everyday life —which is probably the best-known work by Michel De Certeau—can be summarized as an attempt at describing the nature of everyday practices. As De Certeau claims: A tactic is a calculated action determined by the absence of a proper locus. No delimitation of an exteriority, then, provides it with the condition necessary for autonomy. The space of a tactic is a space of the other. Thus it must play on and with a terrain imposed on it and organized by the law of a foreign power.
It does not have means to keep to itself, at a distance, in a position of withdrawal, foresight, and self-collection […] It does not, therefore, have the options of planning general strategy and viewing the adversary as a whole within a district, visible, and objectifiable space. It operates in isolated actions, blow by blow. This latter expression refers to the social space as increasingly dominated by power relationships. The creativity of tactics is instantaneous and ephemeral. Against a passive consideration of subjects, De Certeau aims at identifying the active and creative operations consumers invent to affirm their subjectivity.
The same goes for the urban space, the products purchased in the supermarket, the stories and legends distributed by the newspapers, and so on De Certeau , XII. Underlined the tactical nature of everyday activities, on the other hand De Certeau describes the strategy as… the calculation or manipulation of power relationships that becomes possible as soon as a subject with will and power a business, an army, a city, a scientific institution can be isolated.
It postulates a place that can be delimited as its own and as the base from which relations with an exteriority composed of targets or threats customers or competitors, enemies, the country surrounding the city, objectives and objects of research etc. Strategies are all those practices supported by a knowledge or a theory in this sense they are codified , whose subject has a precise and definite identity although not necessarily individual and which through the practice itself separate an inside and an outside space.
To recall the example already quoted, a broadcast company acts—mostly—strategically: it is a recognizable and definite agent that acts following a plan, and through the activity of broadcasting distinguishes the space of the producers inside and the one of the spectators outside. Furthermore, one practice can be described in strategical terms in a specific situation and in tactical terms in another.
What is fundamental for Michel De Certeau is the reciprocal relationship of a strategy and a tactics: no one can be visible without the other, or, better said, the normative and the heteronormative moments are inseparable Bocchetti and reciprocally necessary. Now, going back to the question of teaching, we may ask ourselves if the interplay between strategy and tactic is helpful to understand more deeply the relationship between teaching and studying.
It may seem obvious to think of teaching in terms of strategy and of studying in terms of tactics Footnote 14 but, as I will now show, the consequences of such choice are not obvious at all. Firstly, the strategic knowledge of the teacher seems in a way necessary. Even though the goal of teaching is for Anna to speak for herself, she will not be able to do it if, at first, someone would not have taught her some language. As previously stated, tactics are not visible outside of the space of a strategy and the educational use of these concepts seems to confirm it.
In other words, every kind of teaching is directed to someone who will receive the teaching in an unpredictable way, maybe even reversing the sense of it. Before moving further, a clarification seems to me important. More contemporary and, so to say, community-based approaches to teaching—i.
Footnote 17 Nevertheless, I intend this discussion as a clarification of some fundamental aspects of teaching and studying per se, before logically, not chronologically their actual practice. The concepts of strategy and tactics are useful thinking resources that can be applied to very different practices and I maintain that their discussion can represent an interesting occasion of self-reflection for practitioner of very different teaching approaches.
Back to teaching-strategies and learning-tactics, a contradiction seems to emerge. Between the teacher-strategy and the student-tactics there seem to be a fracture, an infinite distance of roles, a real contradiction. As I will now show returning on the article Giving the speech, De Certeau offers a way to understand the teaching-strategy that does not fall neither into the manipulative nor in the student-centered vision. The author offers an alternative path by recognizing the fundamental otherness between teacher and student and by identifying teaching as a very peculiar kind of strategy.
Finally, it seems necessary to stress a point: the distinction between strategy and tactics—even more when applied to teaching and studying—does not imply any form of moral judgment. De Certeau is not claiming that strategic agency represents some sort of immoral or oppressive behavior while tactics should be seen as the pure rebellion of the oppressed. Footnote 20 Teaching as a Paradoxical Strategy, Studying as an Alteration of Knowledge Teaching, as I have outlined, can be interpreted in terms of strategy, while studying can be interpreted in terms of tactics.
Nevertheless, it is essential to stress once more that the relationship between strategies and tactics is of reciprocal necessity rather than of reciprocal exclusion: a tactic is not visible without a strategy, and there is a constant exchange between the two.
In addition, it is not possible to describe once and for all an act as a strategy or as a tactic. Consequently, the description of teaching as a strategy should not be considered as a rigid conceptualization: as it will be further shown, it is possible to describe some aspects of teaching as tactical and some elements of studying as strategical.
Considering tactics and strategies in their unavoidable entanglement helps us considering the complex and unstable nature of the relationship between teaching and studying. Moving further, De Certeau describes the role of the teacher as follows: [The teacher] reinterprets his tradition depending on his interlocutors.
Teaching does not arrive at the end of a process that from the scientist goes down to the communicator, or from the poet to the anthology. He does not make the content of knowledge simpler to make it understandable; he engraves the other into the body of his own language. Indeed, while strategies are pointed out by De Certeau as acts aiming at repressing the other Footnote 22 to constitute a totality, teaching—although not losing its strategic character—is a strategy always concerned with the necessity of making space for the other.
In other words, teaching is a strategy open to his exteriority, open to its own negation. As De Certeau puts it, the teacher will. The multiple inspirations the author follows are finally reduced and organized into one single narration by one single writer. Differently, reading shows some tactical features. While reading it is possible to skip some pages, to meditate on one line, to underline some expressions, to retain some elements or characters and to forget some other.
In other words, if the text represents a strategical pole the reader represents a tactical one, that acts as an alteration of the unity of the text.
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