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In the meantime the Central Bank, a member of the steering committee, asked that a consultancy review and verify the methodology used by Pimco. Following a tender selection process, the name of the consultancy is expected to be revealed today.

According to reports, those under the age of 45 will be offered four-tenths of their salary for every year of service; employees aged 45 to 55 will receive per cent of their salary for each year of service; and those aged 55 and above will get 1. A similar plan was made available to staff in Cyprus, with about employees opting to take early retirement. Amid mounting capital losses, Popular has called an extraordinary general meeting for February The deviation is mainly due to increased provisions for impairment of loans due to the continuing deteriorating economic conditions and the adoption of stricter assumptions in the context of the Pimco review as well as reduced operating income, the bank said.

The realignment of stars was brief however as the various factions within the Cypriot political system soon turned on each other to blame their opponents for giving Turkey the chance to push for a fourparty conference through their alleged playmaker, UN special adviser on Cyprus Alexander Downer. Government spokesman Stefanos Stefanou on Wednesday rejected the notion of holding four-party talks, accusing Turkey of attempting to deviate from the current negotiating process based on the relevant UN resolutions.

Eroglu has set as a precondition to returning to the table the imposition of a timetable. Most recently, livestock from the areas of Dali, Lympia, Potamia and Athienou have been stolen. Farmers from the affected areas have demanded that police take measures to protect their property. In response, the police have increased their patrols along the buffer zone.

They are calling on people who see anything suspicious on their land or property to inform them but to avoid attempting to resolve the problem themselves as gangs are often armed. Larnaca district court has referred the year-old to criminal court where he is due to appear on February 14, facing premeditated murder charges. The man claimed that his wife killed herself, but police investigators ruled out suicide. The court ordered that the year-old be held in custody until trial starts.

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The four newcomer parties got 2. Another pitch would have the suppliers jointly buy out the company and use future revenues to gradually settle what they are owed. In the meantime a number of major suppliers are reportedly planning to sue the company for compensation. Under these contracts, merchants are bound to stop supplying goods if they have not received payment for over six months. The ministry asked the police to intervene after it received reports that managers and stockholders from OSEL had allegedly been refuelling their luxury cars and putting the charges on invoices that are then sent to the ministry.

The ministry is obliged to reimburse the bus companies as part of the agreement in place. Investigations are at an advanced stage according to Flourentzos who denied claims by the bus company that the agreement covered the costs for some personnel. The construction of yet another new petrol station on the main Paralimni-Ayia Napa road was what prompted the strike. The association said there are too many stations, yet licences are still being issued.

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The EAC employs around 2, people and would start making about 50 people redundant each year eventually ending up with fewer staff by The plan was to encourage people to retire voluntarily by offering a compensation package to anyone between the ages of 50 and 61 years who had already served 25 years with the authority.

Lawmakers this month passed a muchstricter series of changes to pension and retirement bonuses in the broader civil sector, as part of a cost-saving push agreed between Cyprus and its international lenders, who are due to bail the island out. The changes incorporate taxation, and reduced pensions as compared to the generous retirement package that would have fallen under the old EAC deal.

Some may think that with these harsh attacks they were undermining and humiliating the president. There is nothing worse in a democracy than undermining the institutions. He argued that when Cyprus was shut out of the international markets in April , public debt was at The culprits sped away and were followed by police patrols and motorcycles that were later joined by members of the antiriot squad and crime prevention unit.

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The domestic worker was taken by ambulance to Limassol hospital, where the doctor on duty announced her dead on arrival. According to police sources, the driver was remanded in custody for two days because that was all the time needed by police to complete their investigations. The maximum jail sentence for the following charges is four years in jail, said the police source. They were chased across Tseri Avenue into the village of Marki where police managed to cut them off. A gun battle between the police and the three perpetrators ensued, culminating in Xenophontos injury.

Despite being rushed to hospital and being operated on, he did not survive. Cline and D. Harris-Cline, eds. Is this. Is it perhaps attributable in some way to the role of hubs and gateways in such environments? And how is it that for each of these pulses, the scale and direction of connectivity shifts?

Purcell, The corrupting sea: a study of Mediterranean history. Oxford: Blackwell. The Mediterranean and ancient history. Harris, ed. New York: Oxford University Press: Harris 24 1 Imagining movement Timing, context and aims of this book The idea of population movement as a repeated major driver of sociopolitical and economic change has a long history in scholarship on the ancient Aegean.

The volume and quality of evidence available for this region has increased exponentially in the last twenty years — due among other factors to generous funding from the Institute for Aegean Prehistory, the increased physical mobility and intellectual connection of scholars within frameworks including the European Union, and the development of scientific and systematic archaeology in the Aegean region. The change means that older interpretative schemes need refreshing and re-evaluating to keep pace, and this is happening in a variety of ways.

Established general ideas about movement as a factor in social and cultural transformation seem notably important to re-evaluate and test in this context. That is the main aim of this book, which draws together and analyses data at secondary level in a strongly historical and contextual framework covering a long timespan. The long-timespan coverage essential to a historical understanding of movement in this region is achieved through a series of case studies, all chosen for their rich and accessible data and the high-profile history of interpretation of that data in terms of movement.

In all these cases, the secondary data drawn on have recently been significantly updated and as a result have formed the subject of interesting new interpretative approaches — the latter varying significantly in relation to the periods and data types concerned.

Brand-new work on the Final Neolithic period has produced large amounts of evidence pertaining directly to questions of long-distance movement at the very start of the Bronze Age c. The Early Iron Age has seen a recent major extension of research into areas such as landscape, subsistence and settlement, shifting the basis and context of evidence on which scholars can discuss movement as a force for change.

Looking at Aegean-based travels in the Archaic—Classical period c. The presentation and discussion of information is on a selective basis, but the approach to material I use in each discussion is contextual. By the nature of the theme, areas outside the Aegean will be extensively discussed, though at a necessarily more limited level than those within it: the same balanced and contextual approach will be maintained in approaching this data.

The study argues its relevance in the context of world archaeology and in particular European archaeology: population movement as a driver in social and cultural change has recently re-entered the archaeological and sociopolitical spotlight across the continent e. For ancient Mediterranean studies as a whole there is especially strong relevance in addressing movement.

These notions were sited in contemporary nationalist, imperialist and early modernist discourses which the study evaluates and tries to position itself outside see e. Hobsbawm 56—84; —65; —62; Kristiansen and Rowlands 22; Said ; The latter stress long-term, regular, and environmentally driven factors and patterns in the way people moved see e. Knapp and Blake ; Harris ; ed. Buchli ; Diaz-Andreu et al. Hodder The field of postcolonial studies encompassing both the history of interaction and text-focused structural analysis has stimulated new thinking around movement forms and their relationship to power, culture and society in the past — and has particular resonance in the Mediterranean context.

Materiality and cultural practice are increasingly highlighted as active agents in movement, rather than passively determined by it e. Blake and Knapp ; van de Mieroop ; see most recently Broodbank a. Arguing long-distance movement to be generically and systemically characteristic of certain regional areas as Mediterraneanism does can itself tend toward quasi-imperialist reductionism Diamond ; ; with McAnany and Yoffee for critiques; Given ; Harris 38—42; Herzfeld 48; de Pina-Cabral ; Pluciennik ; Shavit ; van Dommelen Abulafia ; Arnold ; Dzino ; Goddard et al.

Study of the past, including past movement, is acknowledged as important in elucidating and developing discussion of these political hot topics e. Atkinson et al. If the Mediterranean is a recurrent locus of interest in all the above debates, the Aegean has a special role within both European and Mediterranean frameworks of discussion. As a result of a surge in development-led archaeological rescue projects in Greece and Turkey during the last two decades, and of especially well-funded academic research on Aegean prehistory in the same period,1 a rich regional data set is ripe for new discussion.

The volatile nationalisms characteristic of the colonial and postcolonial Mediterranean, and their relationship to archaeological interpretation, have been the subject of especially prolific historiographic review and dissection within Greek cultural studies.

The discipline of Aegean prehistory entered a phase of intense self-reflection unparalleled in many other Mediterranean archaeologies as it passed its hundred-year mark e. Cherry et al. This book has no need to re-fight this ground. Aruz et al. The conceptual toolkit: existing approaches to Mediterranean movement In any new long-timeframe work discussing Mediterranean movement, the concept of Mediterraneanism must be engaged with Morris ; Renfrew Increasingly well-defined in the historical and archaeological literature over the last twenty years, this approach now affects most readings of early movement in the region though some recent general works while clearly informed by its outlooks, make little overt reference to it; see e.

Demand Inherent parallels have often been suggested with other regions facing and using a small-scale connective zone, including the Sahara margins, Micronesia and Japan e. Abulafia Broodbank a: 20; Calvo et al. However, following the establishment of the earliest visible connections between human populations within the region now dated around the eleventh millennium bc: see 6 Imagining movement Broodbank connectivity is usually viewed in these models as having become a permanent feature of the Mediterranean.

Blake and Knapp 12—13; 15—16; Cherry et al. Mantzourani and Catapoti Mediterraneanism is, in many applications, a normalising discourse on movement. Mediterraneanism remains, nonetheless, a less biased and more open perspective in which to explore movement than many other approaches considered in this study, including Europeanist and Orientalist ones Broodbank a: 20—5.

In the same period, increases in the quality and quantity of data, and the advent of science-based studies in archaeology, produced a boom in research on provenance and various forms of exchange in connection to movement among many others see e.

Duistermaat and Regulski ; Gale ; Jones et al. Attempts to encapsulate the evidence for early Mediterranean movement and related socioeconomic change within systemic models emerged in this context, perhaps most notably in the area of world-systems theory. Such models have often tended to see inherently rational aggrandisement in ancient societies as both pushing movement and determining its effects e.

Algaze ; Rowlands et al. Sherratt ; S. Sherratt ; Sherratt and Sherratt ; By their systemic nature, however, they have tended to depersonalise and dematerialise contact processes, largely failing to produce narratives of sociocultural change with much depth or diversity, or to provide insight into the uncertainty and open-endedness of interaction experiences2 for critiques see Dietler 29—30; Gilboa 66; Kardulias ; Kohl ; Kotsakis ; 63—4; Lightfoot 3; Maran —3; Peltenburg ; Rahmstorf ; Renfrew ; Sherratt ; Stein 8 for critiques.

They have offered usefully broad, but essentially superficial, structures of thinking about ancient movement, rather than attempts at investigating its deep social and cultural ramifications. Perspectives emphasising materiality have been a feature of archaeology, including Mediterranean archaeology, in the past decade.

They are rooted partly in phenomenological approaches to the archaeological record, as well as in concerns with the construction of identity through consumption. Engagement with such perspectives helps avoid tendencies to extreme abstraction of movement as a social and cultural force, and aids reconstruction of experiences around it.

Recent applications have included investigation of object agency — i. However, most uses of object agency perspectives in the Mediterranean to date have been in small and chronologically specific case studies. Agents and their experiences are becoming of ever greater interest in regard to understanding ancient movement.

Again, they risk treating consumption or other experience of objects acquired over distance as somehow irrelevant to, or entirely separate from, the experience of movement. In engaging with the case study data, the present book analyses, draws and builds on aspects of all the above approaches.

My argument is that if movement with all its related and messy impacts matters in past societal development, then we need a more anatomised, contextualised and embodied understanding of its effects and experiences, including the forms of power associated with and emerging from it. Recent reactive tendencies to processualise, endemicise, systematise or otherwise normalise ancient movement in the region can fail to fully engage with the contingent nature and powerful impact of movement and its related encounters, and themselves need critiquing in a more imaginative and more broadly, deeply contextualised perspective.

Reviewing the significance of movement in the ways above seems most usefully undertaken in a long-timeframe, cross-period comparative context, covering large parts of the region. A strongly constructive critique of existing narratives or models, in an historiographically informed perspective, also seems important.

Given 13 for an example of imaginative approaches to agent experiences in interaction. I am ambitious in aiming at this in each case study here, with varying results which I hope will at least provide an enriched basis for further argument. My focus is on evidence for specific, directional movements usually at a significant scale linked to episodes of transformative social change. But as Mediterraneanist perspectives stress, such movements cannot be properly understood unless viewed alongside other kinds and outcomes of movement.

This point is especially relevant in the European especially Mediterranean 10 Imagining movement context. Even where this actually, in sum, represents large-scale migration permanent movement of large numbers of people over distance and across political boundaries within short periods of time , it has often not been perceived as such at least until the refugee crises of the last few years due to dispersal of migrants on entry and their relatively efficient, peaceful processing into host societies whether through the emergence of enclaves or deeper cultural integration in a globalised cultural environment rather than the drastic, large-scale and visible transformation of those societies.

Exploring issues around ancient and historical Aegean movement can usefully encapsulate and test wider debates and perceptions around movement in the European and Mediterranean arenas. In both perspectives, the Aegean has been of consistently high interest. Interpretations of movement in this vein in turn Imagining movement 11 reinforced contemporary national and imperial agendas at a number of levels and across a range of settings Dietler Many established narratives of movement and social transformation in Aegean prehistory are rooted in models developed in this period.

At the same time, the role of competitive foreign-led fieldwork and scholarship in building archaeology as a discipline in the Aegean encouraged rapid, politicised entrenchment of interpretations of ancient material and created a generally conservative academic environment, holding back the advent of a globalised, reflexive discourse Hamilakis 57—; Cherry Against this background, as noted above, the last forty years of research in the Aegean have been dominated by somewhat belated and often simplified applications of processual approaches, focused around finding predictable and generalised patterns in human behaviour over long timescales and large areas.

Cases from entirely different geographical and historical settings have often been cited as analogies for ancient Aegean developments, while studies drawing on regional ethnography as analogy for ancient practice have focused heavily on framing the exploitable parameters of Aegean landscapes and seascapes: see Fotiades ; Renfrew and Wagstaff ; Rogers Some recent approaches to the role of movement as a factor in ancient social and cultural change are systems- and process-orientated, though less ecologically-focused Knappett and Nikolakopoulou As we shall see, state formation one of the preoccupations of processual archaeology has been a major theme in Aegean prehistory during the last few decades, used to justify a large proportion of field research projects.

This perspective has helped clarify regional data patterns to a valuable and stimulating extent. The study of movement forms a relevant and important example for the reasons outlined above, allowing application of a variety of new perspectives developed in wider archaeological discourse. Aegean data quality: special features The case studies here are linked by the Aegean theatre in which they occurred and by their interconnected histories, but the range of space and time involved c.

While scholars into the s could attempt sweeping cross-period analyses including of phenomena like movement in a fairly guilt-free fashion,34 given the limited amounts of data and the generally low-resolution nature 12 Imagining movement of data recovery and processing, this scenario has changed as standards in retrieval and analysis have risen.

In this context, contemporary analysts of Aegean material often prefer to focus on small subregional patterns and extrapolate processes, rather than trying to develop a picture of large-scale, diachronic and complexlyrelated developments Foxhall Yet given the quantity and quality of data now available, there is no easy way or any scholar supremely qualified to write a study of early Aegean movement with the kind of long-term and wide spatial scope I have set out above see Broodbank b: ; c: Recognising the complexities of the data and engaging with them in new ways, as well as adopting a contextual approach, is the way forward adopted here.

Partly thanks to the volume and complexity of data available, Aegeanlinked movement over long timeframes has recently mostly been treated in small regional or thematic chunks, via a variety of papers and edited volumes often citing or subsuming studies of other Mediterranean areas as a way of enlarging the frame of reference, especially as Mediterraneanist approaches have gained traction.

Many of these works have tended to focus on trade, or on the techniques of travel Cline ; Cline and Harris-Cline ; Galanaki et al. There still seem further opportunities to use big themes and multi-period syntheses to build footholds in the bog of data and reach out from the Aegean to archaeology as a world discipline Broodbank b.

The Aegean data has some special facets which need consideration in any synthetic approach. In contrast, approaches rooted in anthropology have tended to minimise, Imagining movement 13 deconstruct or challenge text-centred accounts of movement, often in a useful way see Manning 36—7; Whitley Sophisticated, nuanced readings of ancient texts, of a type recently gaining ground, can offer light on the way ancient social identities and encounters were constructed, in ways not available from the analysis of archaeological data.

They can also caution against straightforward assumptions about movement and its impacts on the basis of texts. Approaches to the use of texts as a source do not neatly separate Aegean prehistorians from Classical archaeologists, as we shall see. Analysing ancient culture change: earlier approaches and the ways they are built on in this book I place the concept of transformative change denoting a number of changes in society concentrated within a particular timeframe, and strongly visible in terms of cultural practice at the core of this book.

This scenario has traditionally been one of the most tempting to analyse and explain with models of mass migration and related automatic cultural transfer Rouse In the case studies treated here, change can be seen to have occurred within a noticeable and defined period, but at a variety of rates and levels.

In considering this kind of change, the heritage of culture-historical approaches in European archaeology comes to the fore for a recent overview of these, see Hakenbeck These approaches overlap with many past and current perspectives in Classical archaeology, and had considerable influence on early movement and culture change models for the Aegean: for the continuing application of such approaches to Aegean prehistory see e.

Bouzek ; ; ; Korfmann —6; for critiques see e. With varying degrees of nuance, these perspectives have tended to equate the character of social groups with aspects of their cultural production: when the latter change, the group is seen as inherently altered — often in terms of the physical replacement or augmentation of its membership. Frequently noted problems with these approaches include their failure to envision the full range of social dynamics affecting cultural 14 Imagining movement practice encouraging overreliance on simple tropes, including movement, to explain change and their assumption that cultural boundaries are coterminous with ethnopolitical ones.

The latter again tends to favour views of movement as a straightforward force in cultural change. A related problem, especially within the Classical archaeology tradition, has been the tendency to focus on selected cultural features often highly visible, accessible or spectacular ones in mapping change, even though these may be subject to distorting factors as in areas like prestige goods consumption, as classically demonstrated by e.

Archaeologists will always need to map patterns of cultural practice in space to understand social developments — but they increasingly recognise that such mapping and naming needs to be fluid in nature and to be based on strong understandings of context — that is, the wider social, material, economic and historical fields in which individual aspects of material culture operate and are embedded Hodder ; Scale and timing, as well as context, seem crucial to identifying transformative social change through cultural data.

It is unlikely from the outset that all features of representative cultural change were present in all subregions concerned, or that they appeared simultaneously. Indeed, variations in the quality and timing of sociocultural change across regions can be highly informative when reconstructing the role of movement in producing change at large scales.

Other legacy issues associated with the consideration of transformative change include that of social class. We shall see from the case studies that older movement-linked models of change in the ancient Mediterranean often reconstructed migrants and the societies they affected as lying at social extremes e.

The effect of such approaches has often been to leave the non-elite part of society i. Foxhall ; Gosden 41—2; Killebrew 23—4. This is necessary for balance and nuance, even though the Bronze Age east Mediterranean social environment was a highly unequal one, in which elite movements and interactions did produce disproportionate effects on society. I maintain balance in this area again through addressing the broadest range of contextual data possible.

Language and script forms have traditionally been heavily relied on by scholars identifying movement-linked social change in the early Mediterranean. Assumptions grounded in culture history — e. Yet the most recent studies of ancient texts and linguistics have stressed the manipulability of language in structuring ethnicity, and its consciously politicised use in the ancient world.

Bearing these aspects of linguistic culture in mind, I will in this book treat language evidence consistently within the deep context of the wider material record when assessing sociocultural change and its causes, including movement. The issue of class comes into play again when addressing the significance of language change.

In the whole period covered here, the vast majority of the Mediterranean population were not literate: writing grants us access to information only about an unrepresentative elite. In this context, we should remember that change in written language need not always indicate either deep social change or related large-scale population movement.

In the context discussed above, many older models identifying ancient Aegean cultural change as directly driven by movement clearly require review Manning Since the s, the application of scientific techniques has been a valuable way of refining or testing small-scale hypotheses about cultural change and innovation. Changes in burial rites and goods a focus of traditional movement models relying on limited, selective data collection can now be evaluated in conjunction with detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of human skeletal remains elucidating genetic composition, place of birth, age at death, sex distribution and other elements of possible diachronic change in burial populations.

These methods parallel those used in analysing ancient culture change across the rest of the world and contribute strongly to a contextual archaeology. However, their context of application to movement and culture change in the ancient Aegean has hitherto been variable and restricted. There is no Aegean parallel yet, for example, to largescale integrated NW European studies utilising techniques like DNA and strontium isotope analysis to elucidate the relationship between multifaceted cultural change and movement e.

Eckerd ; Leach et al. These restrictions are partly due to difficulty in accessing large bodies of Aegean material for scientific analysis especially when regional or national boundaries are crossed, thanks to the politicised history of archaeology in the region, discussed in Chapter 2. Another restricting factor is the unsystematic methods which were prevalent in data collection in the early days of Aegean prehistory, compromising the condition of collected material.

Interest in and opportunities for this sort of large-scale scientific research are improving notwithstanding Kovatsi et al. Yet few are under the illusion that scientific techniques alone will provide clear answers on how and why sociocultural change occurred, including in possible relation to movement. Rather, better-clarified models and developed research questions seem core. A study like the present one can best use science techniques in making contextualised assessments of the diversity of change across social and cultural categories, the regional concentration of change, and the permanence of change.

Movement and culture change in the ancient Aegean: recent region-specific perspectives I have noted a current general tendency to wariness in presenting longdistance directional movement as a factor in social and cultural change in the early Aegean for critiques of this attitude, especially in regard to processually immersed Anglo-Saxon scholarship, see e. Maran 4; Rahmstorf Across the east Mediterranean, ecological explanations often movement-linked for state emergence, collapse and other major cultural horizons are currently being enthusiastically explored — sometimes in preference to explaining movement stimuli, modes and effects in terms of society, agents and experience.

Post-processual archaeologists are highly aware of the pitfalls of ecologically determinist viewpoints, so correlations between past climate change and episodes of sociocultural change are rarely presented in terms of direct determination. But the subtext is clear: environment especially environmental catastrophe is seen as a potential major driver of both movement and culture change — even while the relationship between the last two phenomena is left hanging. The tendency has been especially strong for early prehistory — where the most systematic reconstruction of ancient climate over long timescales and the most serious consideration of it as a driver for momentous cultural transitions, such as the origins of farming, have applied Kaniewski et al.

Climate-based models of movement-linked culture change seem most convincingly used at the large e. Climate-driven models of movement rarely appear as part of a joined-up conceptualisation of how movement might have occurred in social and cultural terms, taking into full account its experiences, benefits, practicalities and long-term effects.

A sophisticated take on environmentally-conditioned movement and culture change, involving stimulating and insightful comparison between different Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean areas, has emerged out of island archaeology which has roots in processual approaches and links closely into Mediterraneanist and systems-type models. Broodbank ; 5—39; 68—; —5; Cherry ; 18 Imagining movement for earlier island archaeology approaches see Evans ; ; Renfrew and Wagstaff ; for critiques, stressing a lack of attention to agency, history and contingency, include Erlandson and Fitzpatrick 7—8; Knapp ; Rainbird Overall, however, movement of an endemic, continuous kind is the most heavily stressed in this and related subsequent work by this author.

Knappett and others have focused on identifying patterns in movement during another transformative period of Aegean prehistory the emergence, consumption and impact of palatial culture on and around Crete, c. Others have used network models to investigate movement in later Aegean periods especially Archaic to Classical: Antonaccio ; Hodos ; —5; see also Constantakopoulou ; Demand ; Malkin —9; ; Malkin et al.

Such approaches help avoid the assumptions about movement as unidirectional and predictable in its effects found in older scholarly narratives especially those based on texts. More open-ended and less purely economically-focused than world-systems models, and taking account of agency, cognition and social structure, network perspectives potentially offer the chance to explore diverse e. The best such models usually incorporating Mediterraneanisttype assumptions about connectivity acknowledge environment as both a structuring factor in movement and a conceptual product of movement.

They take a contextual approach, focusing on the perceptions, materials, structures and systems conditioning movement and its effects, rather than isolating movement as a system in itself Broodbank a: 20; Davis and Gorogianni ; van Oyen Some rightly stress connectivity as unevenly and consciously structured and conceptualise moving actors as connective nodes in themselves Antonaccio In my case studies, I try to build on the best of these approaches in a more overtly historical perspective, less focused on simplifying the growth of movement systems as repeated patterns than on highlighting their contingent nature.

Another promising way in which the discourse on ancient Aegean movement and culture change is being developed is through some new approaches to ancient texts — mostly relevant to the Iron Age and later periods. While scholars of the Aegean used ancient sources as more or less authoritative guides to prehistory for much of the twentieth century e. Hall ; ; Malkin ; This has encouraged more nuanced evaluation of textual accounts of movement, and new archaeologically- and anthropologically-informed explorations of how movement and related culture change might actually have been experienced by ancient groups, which draw on texts in a wider context of cultural evidence e.

Hodos The effect has nonetheless filtered through only into some parts of the scholarship Bintliff 52 for critique. Superficial reference to texts often still appears tempting in the absence of a cogent, engaged and up-to-date archaeological discourse on movement and the experience of movement in this region. This is another reason for building and testing clear models based on a contextual examination of the ancient evidence Avdela ; Mavroskouphis ; Repoussi ; Simandiraki ; Summary: context, methods and parameters of the present study It seems vital to address questions of generalised or repeated process in movement and its sociocultural impact in relating influential recent perspectives on the ancient Aegean including Mediterraneanist and systems approaches 20 Imagining movement to traditional models grounded in culture history.

Related topics, such as the archaeology of colonialism or of islands, have been treated by single authors at an equally wide, or wider, spatial and diachronic scale e. Broodbank ; a; Gosden ; Steel In my case studies, societies in areas including coastal Anatolia, Egypt, Syria-Palestine, south Italy, Cyprus and the Balkans, as well as the Aegean mainland and islands, will all need to be considered when exploring the experiences and effects of movement and interaction.

It is extremely important, nonetheless especially in view of the history of scholarship in this field that my explanations of culture change and arguments about its importance and relation to movement avoid an Aegeo-centric bias: I try to ensure this throughout. Artefacts in exchange circulation have often been the focus of movement accounts for the region in the past. High-visibility ceremonial practices are another favoured area, as we shall see in the case studies. Both fields offer limited perspectives on how sociocultural change may have related to movement.

In order to widen the scope of analysis, I here explore the archaeological record in its widest possible sense — including, for example, texts, cultural landscapes, domestic practices and subsistence-related data — without making assumptions about the priority of specific data types in indicating kinds or volumes of movement.

My method in dealing with the overwhelming quantities of relevant data applicable to each case study period will be, first, to provide a targeted overview of the currently available evidence around movement and sociocultural transformation in each case Chapters 3—7. In each case study, this Imagining movement 21 is followed by an evaluation of previous interpretations of that evidence based on contextualised and updated review.

This leads into a updated model of the role of movement in change for the relevant period, drawing on the outlooks, methods and approaches I have highlighted as valuable in the discussion above. I have not approached the data through the lens of any single new method or perspective, though the underlying and consistent approach is that of a contextual and historical archaeology. Notwithstanding, the book is not intended as a mainly historiographical exercise.

The gaps in scholarship around ancient Aegean movement which I have identified above do arise in part from a lack of direct scholarly engagement with older models and the discourses informing them, making it important to revisit these. But simply deconstructing older models and showing how they emerged does not, on its own, offer something more useful to put in their place.

My aim is rather to discuss the data from the early Aegean in a way which enriches both region-specific and general understanding of movement as a force in past social and cultural transformations. To this end, I try to model the evidence in positive and structured terms, making no a priori assumptions about movement as a likely or inevitably transformative force in any particular period or pattern. My conclusions Chapter 8 suggest that while movement did often have deeply transformative effects in the Aegean and that some repeated patterns exist, the features of movement and its effects across the period studied are complex, deeply historically grounded and non-predictable.

My argument is that movement needs to be rehabilitated in this region as an important factor in change — a factor with its own open-ended and self-sustained patterns, rather than an overdetermined or endemic force. At the same time, it cannot be seen as an inevitably dominant, unique or standard factor in change above other historical forces. Notes 1 In great part due to the region-wide investment in research by the Institute for Aegean Prehistory.

I argue that disregarding the way ethnicity or other aspects of ancient identity were constructed and operated in material terms must limit our insight into movement-linked encounters, and thus into their impacts. Bibliography Abulafia, D. In Harris: 64— Adams, W.

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